Battle of Fort Mims
Significant military engagements outside of the Old Northwest and Niagara region were few in 1813. On the southern frontier, in what is now Alabama, Creek militants, known as “Red Sticks” attacked Fort Mims and wiped out its defenders, a force of approximately 250 militia along with white settlers, Lower Creek, and slaves. The Red Sticks are estimated to have suffered an equal number of causalities, but their attack on Fort Mims was termed a massacre and served to whip up American sentiment against the Creek Nation, leading to the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in 1814. Events at Fort Mims also escalated internal conflicts within the Creek Nation into a full-fledged civil war.