Reconstruction to Tulsa




“The 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre: Looking Back, Looking Ahea.” YouTube, YouTube, 19 May 2021, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WgSzzp3j18k. Accessed 9 Aug. 2023.

“4th Avenue Historic District.” Bhamwiki, www.bhamwiki.com/w/4th_Avenue_Historic_District. Accessed 8 Aug. 2023.

Anthony, Steven. “The Elaine Riot of 1919: Race, Class, and Labor in the Arkansas Delta.” UWM Digital Commons, dc.uwm.edu/etd/2040/. Accessed 15 Aug. 2023.

“Artifacts from Famed Mecca Flats Unearthed on Illinois Tech’s Campus.” YouTube, 7 Aug. 2018, www.youtube.com/watch?v=PufcMggMvEQ.

“A Beacon on Black Wall Street From Bricks and Mortar to Community Building.” Www.Ncmutuallife.Com, perma.cc/76YZ-9R5S. Accessed 9 Aug. 2023.

Bowen, Dawn S. “THE TRANSFORMATION OF RICHMOND’S HISTORIC AFRICAN AMERICAN COMMERCIAL CORRIDOR.” Southeastern Geographer, vol. 43, no. 2, 2003, pp. 260–78. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/44371176. Accessed 15 Aug. 2023.

Brown, DeNeen L. “Mass Grave Unearthed as the Search for Victims of the Tulsa Race Massacre Continues.” History, 26 Jan. 2022, www.nationalgeographic.com/history/article/search-for-victims-tulsa-race-massacre-continues-mass-grave-unearthed.

Capeci, Dominic J., and Jack C. Knight. “Reckoning with Violence: W. E. B. Du Bois and the 1906 Atlanta Race Riot.” The Journal of Southern History, vol. 62, no. 4, 1996, pp. 727–66. JSTOR, https://doi.org/10.2307/2211139. Accessed 15 Aug. 2023.

Carriere, Marius. “An Irresponsible Press: Memphis Newspapers and the 1866 Riot.” Tennessee Historical Quarterly, vol. 60, no. 1, 2001, pp. 2–15. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/42628498. Accessed 9 Aug. 2023.Ingham, John N. “Building Businesses,

Cole, Peter, and Franklin Cosey-Gay. Public Art One Way to Address Chicago’s History of Racism, digitaledition.chicagotribune.com/infinity/article_share.aspx?guid=2142174b-bae4-4da9-8699-6f64436f3e8d. Accessed 9 Aug. 2023.

“Congressional Report: #MemphisMassacre1866.” Memphis Massacre 1866, blogs.memphis.edu/memphismassacre1866/39th-congress-memphis-riots-and-massacres-a-special-report/. Accessed 8 Aug. 2023.

Creating Communities: Residential Segregation and the Growth of African American Business in Southern Cities, 1880–1915.” Business History Review, vol. 77, no. 4, 2003, pp. 639–665., doi:10.2307/30041232.

Crowe, Charles. “Racial Violence and Social Reform-Origins of the Atlanta Riot of 1906.” The Journal of Negro History, www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.2307/2716218?journalCode=jnh. Accessed 9 Aug. 2023.

“The Devastation of Black Wall Street.” POLITICS & HISTORY, daily.jstor.org/the-devastation-of-black-wall-street/. Accessed 15 Aug. 2023.

“Footsteps from North Brentwood Digital Exhibition.” Prince Georges African American Museum & Cultural Center, 3 Sept. 2019, pgaamcc.org/digitalfootsteps/.

Fuke, R. P. (1988). Planters, Apprenticeship, and Forced Labor: The Black Family under Pressure in Post-Emancipation Maryland. Agricultural History, 62(4), 57–74. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3743375 

Gerena, Charles. “Economic History Urban Entrepreneurs .” Richmondfed.Org, www.richmondfed.org/-/media/richmondfedorg/publications/research/econ_focus/2004/winter/pdf/economic_history.pdf. Accessed 15 Aug. 2023.

Hardwick, Kevin R. “‘Your Old Father Abe Lincoln Is Dead and Damned’: Black Soldiers and the Memphis Race Riot of 1866.” Journal of Social History, vol. 27, no. 1, 1993, pp. 109–28. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3789131. Accessed 15 Aug. 2023.

Howell , Tom. “Census: Md. Economy Supports Black-Owned Businesses.” Maryland Newsline - Business - Special Reports: 2000 Census, web.archive.org/web/20070501181353/www.newsline.umd.edu/business/specialreports/census/blackbusiness041806.htm. Accessed 9 Aug. 2023.

In Pursuit of Freedom, pursuitoffreedom.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/IPOF_walking_tour_guide.pdf. Accessed 9 Aug. 2023.

“Jackson Ward and Its Black Wall Street (U.S. National Park Service).” National Parks Service, www.nps.gov/articles/000/jackson-ward-and-its-black-wall-street.htm. Accessed 9 Aug. 2023.

Jemison, Elizabeth. “Black Churches in the Memphis Massacre.” Memphis Massacre 1866, 29 Mar. 2016, blogs.memphis.edu/memphismassacre1866/2016/03/29/black-churches-in-the-memphis-massacre/.

Lauck, Jeffrey  L. “From the Ashes of Glory: The Rise and Fall of Jackson Ward.” The Cupola: Scholarship at Gettysburg College, cupola.gettysburg.edu/student_scholarship/471/. Accessed 9 Aug. 2023.

“Let Us Put Our Money Together: The Founding of America’s First Black Banks.” Kansascityfed.Org, perma.cc/M9YF-XAQG. Accessed 9 Aug. 2023.

M-Ncppc. “M-NCPPC, 2011 Black History Exhibit Booklet.” Issuu, 1 Feb. 2011, issuu.com/pgparks/docs/black_history_exhibit_booklet_2011.

Madeo. “Aug. 14, 1908: Racial Violence by White Mobs Erupts in Springfield, Illinois.” Calendar.Eji.Org, calendar.eji.org/racial-injustice/aug/14. Accessed 8 Aug. 2023.

Magazine, Smithsonian. “In Land of Lincoln, Long-Buried Traces of a Race Riot Come to the Surface.” Smithsonian.Com, 7 Jan. 2019, www.smithsonianmag.com/history/land-lincoln-long-buried-traces-race-riot-come-surface-180971036/.

“Mapping Prejudice.” Mapping Prejudice, mappingprejudice.umn.edu/. Accessed 9 Aug. 2023.

“Memphis, Tennessee.” Equal Justice Initiative Reports, 12 June 2020, eji.org/report/reconstruction-in-america/the-danger-of-freedom/sidebar/memphis-tennessee/.

Merrefield, Clark. “The 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre and Its Enduring Financial Fallout.” Harvard Gazette, 20 May 2021, news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2020/06/the-1921-tulsa-race-massacre-and-its-enduring-financial-fallout/.

Messer, Chris  M, et al. The Destruction of Black Wall Street: Tulsa’s 1921 Riot and the Eradication of Accumulated Wealth, onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ajes.12225. Accessed 15 Aug. 2023.

Messer, Chris M., and Patricia A. Bell. “Mass Media and Governmental Framing of Riots: The Case of Tulsa, 1921.” Journal of Black Studies, vol. 40, no. 5, 2010, pp. 851–70. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/40648610. Accessed 15 Aug. 2023.

“Michigan Legal Milestones: 1. Ossian Sweet Trial.” State Bar of Michigan, www.michbar.org/programs/milestone/milestones_ossiansweettrial#:~:text=1.%20Ossian%20Sweet%20Trial%20In%201925%20Dr.%20Sweet,of%20Justice%20in%20Detroit%20on%20May%202%2C%201986. Accessed 9 Aug. 2023.

Mullins, Paul. “The Last Holdouts: Community Displacement and Urban Renewal on the IUPUI Campus: Invisible Indianapolis.” Perma.Cc, perma.cc/TG2V-ZUNQ. Accessed 15 Aug. 2023.

Owens, Kayla Deigh. The Successes and Failures of the United States to Grant Reparations to Greenwood, Oklahoma Following the 1921 Destruction of Black Wall Street, www.proquest.com/docview/2618437533?pq-origsite=gscholar&fromopenview=true. Accessed 15 Aug. 2023.

“Race Riot of 1908.” SangamonLink, 11 Feb. 2023, sangamoncountyhistory.org/wp/?p=1486.

“Reconstruction in America: Eji Report.” Equal Justice Initiative Reports, 19 Oct. 2022, eji.org/report/reconstruction-in-america/.

Riley, Harriet.  “A Place Apart: Mound Bayou.” Mississippi Folklife, 23 Oct. 2020, mississippifolklife.org/index.php/articles/a-place-apart-mound-bayou.

Ryan, James G. The Memphis Riots of 1866: Terror in a Black Community During Reconstruction, www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.2307/2716953. Accessed 15 Aug. 2023.

“Select Freedmen’s Bureau Records.” National Archives and Records Administration, www.archives.gov/research/african-americans/freedmens-bureau/highlights.html. Accessed 9 Aug. 2023.

Senechal, Roberta. The Springfield Race Riot of 1908, www.lib.niu.edu/1996/iht329622.html. Accessed 15 Aug. 2023.

“The Unique History of DC’s U Street Neighborhood.” Washington DC, washington.org/visit-dc/u-streets-unique-history-washington-dc#. Accessed 15 Aug. 2023.

Tuttle, William M. “Violence in a ‘Heathen’ Land: The Longview Race Riot of 1919.” Phylon (1960-), vol. 33, no. 4, 1972, pp. 324–33. JSTOR, https://doi.org/10.2307/273678. Accessed 15 Aug. 2023.

“An Unrighteous Piece of Business.” Mercatus Center, 27 July 2010, www.mercatus.org/hayekprogram/research/working-papers/unrighteous-piece-business.

“VCU Libraries Digital Collections.” Jackson Ward Historic District | VCU Libraries Digital Collections, digital.library.vcu.edu/islandora/object/vcu%3Ajwh. Accessed 9 Aug. 2023.

Whayne, Jeannie M. “Low Villains and Wickedness in High Places: Race and Class in the Elaine Riots.” The Arkansas Historical Quarterly, vol. 58, no. 3, 1999, pp. 285–313. JSTOR, https://doi.org/10.2307/40026231. Accessed 15 Aug. 2023.

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